COVID-19 and PCR Testing

What is a PCR test?

A polymerase chain response (PCR) test is performed to detect genetic material from a specific organism, corresponding to a virus. The test detects the presence of a virus if you are infected at the time of the test. The test may additionally detect fragments of virus even after you might be now not infected.

What is a COVID-19 PCR test?

A PCR test for COVID-19 is a test used to prognosis people who find themselves presently infected with SARS-CoV-2, which is the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The PCR test is the “gold normal” test for diagnosing COVID-19 because it’s essentially the most accurate and reliable test.

Who ought to get tested for COVID-19?

Get tested:

In case you have symptoms of COVID-19.

When you have been within six ft of someone for 15 minutes or more who has tested positive for Covid-19. (Note: some testing sites don’t offer testing when you’ve been uncovered but don’t have symptoms.)

TEST DETAILS

How does a COVID-19 PCR test work?

There are three key steps to the COVID-19 PCR test: 1) pattern assortment, 2) extraction, and three) PCR.

Pattern assortment is done using a swab to collect respiratory materials found in your nose. A swab accommodates a soft tip on an extended, flexible stick that is inserted into your nose. There are different types of nostril swabs together with nasal swabs that acquire a pattern instantly inside your nostrils and nasopharyngeal swabs that go additional into the nasal cavity for collection. Either type of swab is adequate for gathering material for the COVID-19 PCR test. After assortment, the swab is sealed in a tube and then sent to a laboratory.

When a laboratory technologist receives the pattern, they perform a process called extraction, which isolates genetic materials from the sample together with genetic materials from any virus that may be present.

The PCR step then uses particular chemicals and a PCR machine, called a thermal cycler, which cause a reaction to occur that makes hundreds of thousands of copies of a small portion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus’s genetic material. Throughout this process, one of the chemicals produces a fluorescent light if SARS-CoV-2 is present in the sample. This fluorescent light is a “signal” that is detected by the PCR machine and special software is used to interpret the signal as a positive test result.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What do COVID-19 PCR test outcomes imply?

A positive test result means that it is very likely that you have COVID-19. Most individuals have delicate sickness and might recover safely at residence without medical care. Contact your healthcare provider if your signs get worse or when you’ve got questions or concerns.

A negative test end result means you probably didn’t have COVID-19 on the time you took your test. Nevertheless, it is feasible to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 however not have sufficient virus in your body to be detected by the test. For instance, this might happen in the event you recently grew to become contaminated however you don’t have symptoms, but; or it may happen in the event you’ve had COVID-19 for more than a week before being tested. Keep in mind that a negative test doesn’t mean you are safe for any length of time. You might be exposed to COVID-19 after your test, get contaminated and spread the SARS-Cov-2 virus to others.

If your test is positive, talk with your healthcare provider, stay home and separate yourself from others. In case your test is negative, proceed to take steps to protect yourself and others from getting COVID-19. Read more about what to do in the event you test positive and ways to prevent getting infected with COVID-19.

How soon are results of a COVID-19 PCR test available?

You should receive the results of your test as early as 24 hours after pattern assortment, but someday it can take a number of days relying on lengthy it takes the sample to achieve the laboratory and what number of different samples are within the queue to be tested.

What are the advantages of a COVID-19 PCR test?

The main advantages of COVID-19 PCR test are its accuracy and reliability. It is the most accurate test available for COVID-19 detection.

Are there downsides to a COVID-19 PCR test?

Because the test is able to detect very small quantities of virus materials, it can proceed to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 virus even after you’ve recovered from COVID-19 and are now not contagious. So chances are you’ll proceed to test positive you probably have had COVID-19 within the distant previous, despite the fact that you can’t spread the SARS-CoV-2 virus to others.

ADDITIONAL DETAILS

How does the COVID-19 PCR test compare with different available COVID-19 tests?

Basically, there are types of tests, diagnostic tests and antibody tests. Diagnostic tests let you know you probably have an active (current) COVID-19 infection. Antibody tests tell you that you just already had COVID-19.

Diagnostic tests:

PCR test: This tests for the presence of the particular virus’s genetic material or its fragments as it breaks down. This is the most reliable and accurate test for detecting active infection.

Antigen test: This test detects bits of proteins on the surface of the virus called antigens. Antigen tests are typically considered fast, taking only 15 to half-hour but are less accurate than a PCR test. Fast antigen tests are most accurate when used within a couple of days of the start of your symptoms, which is when the most important quantity of virus is present in your body. Because this test will not be as accurate as a PCR test, if an antigen test is negative, your healthcare provider may order a PCR test to confirm the negative test result.

Antibody test:

Antibody (serology) test: This tests detects if you’ve had an immune response (antibodies) to the virus. This means that you’ve had the virus and your body (immune system, specifically antibodies) has mounted an attack to battle it. The test is detecting these antibodies. It typically takes a couple of week after being contaminated for sufficient antibodies to develop to be detected in your blood. For this reason, this test shouldn’t be used to diagnose an active infection.

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